As the weather gets chillier, you need to start thinking about how the colder temperatures will impact your vehicle’s tires. The rubber composition in tires reacts to cold weather and can suffer cracks, pressure drops, tread wear issues, and more if not properly maintained. Understanding these winter tire effects helps you take steps to keep your tires in good shape when ambient temperatures take a plunge.
Here’s a quick question:
Cold weather causes the rubber in tires to stiffen and lose flexibility, resulting in reduced grip and traction on winter roads. It can also lead to cracked tread and sidewalls, lower air pressure that accelerates wear, and exacerbates existing tire damage. Winter conditions add more strain that wears down tires faster through ice traction, potholes, and debris exposure. Checking pressures and condition frequently helps minimize winter weather’s negative impact.
Tires Lose Flexibility and Grip
One of the biggest worries with your tires in cold weather is the rubber losing flexibility. Tire rubber gets stiffer as temperatures drop, causing it to have less give when rolling over road imperfections. The compounds also become harder with a firmer grip on pavement rather than a flexible grip that adjusts better.
With this loss of flexibility comes reduced traction, especially on wet, icy, or snow-covered roads. Your tires simply can’t conform as well to maintain constant contact with the road surface. The result is sliding, slipping, and longer stopping distances that make winter driving more hazardous. Monitoring your tire tread and inflation frequently helps minimize issues associated with stiffening rubber.
Small Cracks Form in the Tread and Sidewalls
As the rubber grows stiff in cold air, small cracks and fractures can also develop along the surface of the tire tread and along the sidewalls. It’s often microscopic at first but expands over time as you add more winter mileage on the tires. Roads with lots of debris can exacerbate these tiny tears in the rubber.
Small cracks allow air to seep out gradually, moisture to seep in, and provide extra channels for contaminants to penetrate your tires’ rubber. That’s why it’s critical to check tires for visible cracks before hitting winter roads, especially if they already have significant wear and dry rotting. Catching damage early makes repairs more straightforward.
Tire Pressure Plummets from Contracting Air
Frigid outside air temperatures cause the air inside your tires to lose volume and pressure as well. It’s a natural consequence of gases contracting in cold weather. Under-inflated tires negatively impact handling and braking, cause faster tread wear, and increase the chance of damage from striking curbs or road debris.
That’s why vigilant tire pressure checks before driving are so essential in winter. Use an accurate gauge to test pressures when tires are cold, then inflate them to the vehicle manufacturer’s recommended specs listed on the door jamb sticker if they are low. Maintaining full inflation prevents the multiple downsides of under-inflation as outdoor temperatures drop.
Winter Weather Exacerbates Existing Tire Damage
While brand new tires with full tread depth can withstand moderate winter conditions, tires that are worn out or have existing damage are much more vulnerable. The frozen temperatures make issues like bald tread, bubbled sidewalls, plugged punctures, and more prone to rapid failure once you hit snowy back roads or icy interstate driving.
Vigorously worn tires already suffer from compromised traction that gets worse when covered in snow or ice. Sidewall damage lets in more moisture when roads are sloppy. Quick temperature changes can lead to cracked rubber. Take time before winter truly arrives to inspect each tire and replace any that are too far gone to safely use for seasonal driving. Investing in new tires beats being stranded roadside by a flat.
Winter Conditions Strain Tires with Additional Forces
Beyond the effects that cold has on rubber itself, winter conditions also strain your tires in other ways. Accelerating and stopping on snow or ice puts extra torque forces on them compared to dry pavement. Turning kicks up more materials that abrade the rubber. Hidden potholes lurk beneath the snow as well.
These winter driving hazards chew up tread depth faster, can damage sidewalls if you hit curbs or debris, and leave you more prone to punctures and leaks. While you can’t prevent these extra strains, you can check tires more frequently for damage during extreme weather and rotate them routinely for even wear. Your efforts keep tires in service longer before replacements become necessary.
Protect Tires from Damage with Care and Maintenance
Now that you see all the ways dropping temperatures and hazardous driving conditions punish tires, here are some ideal ways to minimize damage this winter:
- Inflate tires to specification levels so they don’t operate under-inflated.
- Check pressures and inspect tires frequently for signs of cracks, punctures, or uneven wear issues.
- Rotate tires as recommended to promote even tread depth as they wear.
- Store vehicles garaged or under shelters to limit exposure to extreme cold when not driving.
- Avoid potholes, curbs, and debris that can externally damage tires.
- Replace tires that are too worn to safely operate in winter conditions.
A little preventative care goes a long way to enjoy reliable transportation all winter, saving you money and frustration with downtime from tire failures.
Being attentive to checking tire health and understanding how frigid temperatures negatively impact their rubber helps you recognize problems faster this winter. Then you can take corrective actions like rotating for even wear or inflating to proper pressures before small issues grow into more significant safety hazards on winter roads. With some diligence against the dropping mercury, your tires can thrive all season long.
Summary of Cold Weather Effects on Tires
|Less flexible rubber
|Tire rubber stiffens and loses give at low temps
|Reduced grip and traction, longer stopping distances
|Extreme cold causes small cracks in tread and sidewalls
|Allows air leaks, moisture contamination, more damage
|Lower air pressure
|Colder air inside tires contracts and loses pressure
|Poor handling, reduced control, faster wear
|Exacerbates existing damage
|Worn tires suffer more from winter conditions
|Higher chance of failure, flat tires, getting stuck
|Added winter strain
|Snow/ice traction and potholes put more stress on tires
|Faster tread wear, sidewall damage, puncture likelihood
1. Does the rubber get stiff in cold temperatures?
Yes, the compounds in tire rubber lose flexibility and softness as temperatures drop, causing them to have less grip and traction.
2. What PSI should I inflate my tires to in winter?
Check your vehicle’s recommended tire pressure levels listed on the door jamb sticker and inflate to that spec. Under-inflation causes faster tread wear.
3. How often should I check tire pressures in cold weather?
Check all tire pressures at least once a month when weather is extremely cold to maintain proper inflation levels since frigid temps cause air contraction.
4. Can I still drive with cracks in my tires?
Small cracks in tire treads and sidewalls allow contaminant and moisture penetration that leads to damage over time. Have cracked tires inspected and replaced.
5. Do I need special winter tires for my car?
While all-season tires work for many winter conditions, installing winter tires optimized for snow and ice traction provide much better control in cold weather.